The Helgoland-Zanzibar Treaty (also known as the Anglo-German Agreement of 1890) was an agreement signed on 1 July 1890 between the German Empire and Great Britain. Anglo-Portuguese relations in Africa had been compromised by the British ultimatum of 1890, which had prevented Portugal from joining its colonies in Angola and Mozambique through the future Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe, which led to the Anglo-Portuguese Treaty of 1891 and an Anglo-German agreement of 1898 according to which Germany, if Portugal abandoned its African colonies, Germany`s Southwest Africa was able to expand northward and East Africa to the south, while Britain was able to expand its south. African territory to the east and controls the Atlantic islands of Portugal.  The treaty`s misleading name was introduced by former Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, who wanted to attack his despised successor, Caprivi, to strike a deal that Bismarck himself had organized during his tenure. Britain agreed to defend the Portuguese colonies from their “future and present” enemies.